Financing your Free Software with Google AdSense
... or you have a new customer, Mister Free Software
If you are no longer a teenager and you develop free software, chances
are that you have an hard time trying to make your paywork and your open
source passion to play well together.
It actually depends on the way you contribute code. For some programmers
it's just a distraction from the usual paywork time, small part of
spare time spent for a good goal, having fun and learning something
Other people think that most programming paywork is boring, and aim to spend
as much time as possible writing free software. I'll focus on the
last kind of programmer, the one that loves to write free software
and more precisely the kind of free software he likes to write.
Actually for most programmers in the free software world to write
software that's just free is not enough: they are hackers with specific
interests, so they like to write a given type of software to solve
a given problem. One may like to develop videogames, the other optimizing
compilers, or security tools. So the software to write must be
free and fun. This last point may appear obvious,
but actually it isn't. For example you may be able to get a job into
a software company where the software developed is licensed under the
GPL. Just to say a name, you could get a work at
This is for sure something
nice, but it's not the same as to write free software with
the philosophy of: What kind of problem I want to face today?.
Also if you are in a company obviously you can't do what you like,
you are told to develop a given feature, you like it or not, or to
do some kind of boring work like to test if a given thing is passing
every x.y.z standard, and so on. To make it short: it's not automagic
that to write free software for a company is as fun as to write
your unpaid software, where you are the only to decide what to do,
in what language to do it, with what features and user interface, and
It seems like that the only real world way to write software that's
free and really fun to write, is to write it in your spare time.
But wait, maybe you can change one thing: you could have more spare
time to write software. What you need is some way to
earn from your free software, in this way you can consider every
dollar earned as paid by a virtual customer called Mister Free Software.
Expecially if you are a freelancer this gets simple, the more you earn
from your free software the more you will be able to spend time
for this new cool customer! The problem now is... how to
earn money from free software?
Ways to earn from free software
There are not so many ways to earn from free software, or better it's
possible to compress all the ways in big categories.
One of the most common ways is
1) Write cool software and make money selling services about it.
Let me tell this: it smells
of a not so good idea. You are a programmer good at writing software.
What you can do well is to write software, and what
should you do in your time instead of writing more cool software?
sell services. This is a good way to make money and create a little
start-up, write cool software that's free and sell services, but it
is absolutely not good for our goals: we want to write good software
and have fun, not to create a service company. Let's try with another one.
2) Write free software with closed-source plugins.
That's more reasonable, even if there are a lot of people in the
free software world that just don't want to have something to do
with the closed-source idea. But speaking about the rest,
it may work if your software is very well known and useful.
Often there are alternatives to your program, and people will tend
to use this alternatives if they provide an all-free solution.
Of course you may be able to write a software that's so innovative,
good and needed that this will work. Basically you need to have
a Market outside the free software movement itself.
That's not going to be easy, a small percentage of softwares are
able to reach the point where people are happy to buy closed-source
plugins, and this softwares require to be of some interest
for companies. For example it's hard to sell closed-source plugins for an
Instant Messaging client, still it's a nice piece of code that
many programmers may like to write. So this other alternative appears
to be more or less viable, but very hard to reach, and does not
work for every kind of software. Also it may require a lot of
hard work, so it's going to be more a full business that a way
to get some money directly for what you are going to write
because you like it. The next way is:
3) Write free software with a PRO closed-source version.
More or less the same reasoning of 2) applies.
4) Donations and micropayments.
Donations are what many are actually using in order to get some money,
and it is nice. People use a given software, they find it useful
and well coded enough to deserve some dollar. But unfortunately
there are two limits about this: the first is that most users
will just not pay nothing, so you need a very big number of users
in order to earn a reasonable amount of money. The second problem
is that currently there is no good micropayments service.
If it was simple to charge the user for 10 cents every download
it may be interesting. For the people downloading the software it's near
to get it for free, but if your application does not suck and you
get a decent number of downloads per month this is going to pay
at least some hour of your work every week. Forgot it, the best
you can use for now is paypal that is not pratical for
micropayments: users need to register and the minimal amount
that makes sense with this service is in the order of magnitude
of a dollar. Too much to download a possibly useless software.
So my guess is: donations are good if your application has
a lot of users, while micropayments may be just a cool thing
that still is not reality.
5) Sell win32 binaries
Popular projects like XChat
are using this financing option that I guess may work well when there
is a big user base in the Windows community. The application
is released under a Free Software license, but binaries for
windows are not available on the site. Only the not so easy to
compile source code (expecially for most windows users) is provided.
What the user can do is to buy binaries for a reasonable price,
or download a shareware-alike demo version that works
for a limited period of time or with limited features to test
the application before to buy it.
I've little information about how this system works, and I'll be glad
if somebody with experience in this field can give some feedback
that I'll include in this article. You can of course post your
ideas on the
This is not new. Before free software and internet there
were already tons of things provided free of charge
for the user, earning just from ADs. Free newspapers, television
programs, calendars, and every kind of stuff. Fortunately
the media changes, so the product you give to the final user,
but the earning scheme is still valid. This is how it works:
The user visits your project web page in order to download the
program, or coming from a search engine (where you have
a nice rank because the community and a number of bloggers did a nice
work linking to your useful program). A percentage of this users
will see relevant ADs and will click on them, as result you will
earn some money to spend for your free software project.
For you this works well because the main factor playing here
is the number of visitors you are able to get, and the only way
to get visitors is to write good programs. But your program just
have to be good for users, it does not need to be good for companies
that will then buy closed-source plugins, so you have a great
freedom in what you want to code. There is a single constraint:
you have to write software that's useful to a decent number of
people, but this is anyway a sane way to focus your efforts.
Still there are a lot of details to check to make sure this is
a viable scheme. How much money (or better how many hours to
spend for your free software project) you can earn this way?
and what form of advertising is better to use? There are tons
of affiliates programs around here, what is the best?
Disclaimer: the AdSense service contract does not allow me to
reveal the amount of my earnings, so the following will be
guesswork based on what I heard around from various
people running the service. You may experience very different
earnings, this service works in a very different way in
different sites and I see this every day in my own sites.
is not the only available on the internet
but it is in general the best both in terms of how much you can
earn, and impact from the point of view of the site's visitor. AdSense ADs
tend to be very informative, fast to load and not annoying,
expecially if the site is not overloaded with advertising.
There are a number of AD formats so it is very likely you can
find one that fits well in your current or future site layout.
The question is, is it really the best you can get? Is it
possible to earn more money with a different program where
you can actually sell things related to your software project?
As usually this depends on your project, for example the
WordPress blog engine is
sponsoring web hosting providers. Every time an user purchases
web hosting starting from the WordPress home page link, the project
earns some money. This makes sense because most WordPress users
are naturally interested in hosting.
Following the same idea, GnomeMeeting
may sell webcams via the Amazon Associates program, while
a site about a programming language (be it an implementation
of this programming language or a very important extension) may
try to sell a book about programming on that language.
If your software is not clearly related to something you can sell
this starts to have little chances to work.
The good news is that actually you can have AdSense units and
other associates programs, but in general advertising works better
then programs where you try to sell something in affiliation.
At this point you may wonder how much it is possible to earn with
AdSense with different types of free software projects. Don't think
this data is going to be very accurate, but there is a pattern in
newsgroups, malinglists and online forums: people ask how much
it is possible to earn roughly, and everybody will reply
with "it depends". Sure it depends, but I think I can give an
order of magnitude: if your project is about a topic where there
is some advertising interest (i.e. not Scheme Continuations nor
Haskell Monads) and it is well tuned to have some chances that interested
users will see and click on ADs, you can earn from 10$ to 150$ for month
if you have 100 unique visitors every day. I know... from 10 to 150 is
not going to be an accurate guessing, but this is the best I can give
you, and I'm sure there are people that will experience less than 10$
and more than 150$. This business is, as you can guess, strictly proportional
to the number of visitors you get, so the other parameters
being fixed, with 1000 unique visitors every day you can earn from 100$ to 1500$
dollars for month, and so on.
What is interesting is that you can try to change the other parameters
in order to make your earning nearest to 150$ and not 10$. The rest
of this article will try to give some advice about how to optimize
your project for AdSense. Before to continue I want to stress
a point: to have 1000 unique visitors a day means you have a
very successful free software program. This is not common,
so what you can expect from most projects is 100 or 200 dollars
for month. Not so much but you will be able to pay for a domain name,
and have some hour every month to spend for your nice free software
customer, and being it a very special customer I bet you will charge
very little for hour when you work for him.
If you think 100 dollars for month are too little, think that it
is enough for a programmer doing software about webcams to
buy a new webcam every month, like the author of an application
useful to control some kind of device (like an mp3 player) under
Linux may be able to buy the new model every six months (assuming
it costs 600$). In general this is able to buy you a new laptop
every year, and of course if your service to the community is
very high (so your program is well know, and you get a lot of visitors)
this is going to be more than 100$ for month.
Is it really polite?
Thanks to spammers that nowadays lives between search engines results
(where you have to dig to find real sites), in general we have a bad
feeling about advertising. To mix something of noble like free software
with advertising may not appear to be a good move from an ethical
perspective: this is in my opinion an error. First of all, there are
different forms of advertising. To fill a site with animated gifs
that are of no real interest for the user is much different than
to publish discrete text advertisements with content that is most of the
times very related and of great interest for the users.
The advertisements published in my own sites sometimes are so
pertinent that I'm tempted to click because I'm very interested
to check what they are offering, and I'm forced to avoid to click
just because it's not a good idea to click on your own site's ADs!
From the point of view of the project user, some AD should not really
change his experience. If he is not interested anyway there is the
download link to get the application for free and go away.
The ADs will have the nice side effect that this application will
be more likely to be developed in the future thanks to the resulting
earning. Instead if the user finds some AD interesting, it is more
or less a service more the project is giving. Bad and Good advertising are
so different to range from the annoying to the service, and in my
opinion Google AdSense is good advertising.
Selecting a project
If you are already developing a free software project you can't
tune this aspect, that's the topic of your free software
project. The best you can do is to try advertising hoping they
will work well for your project. Instead if you plan to develop
a new project you can select it in order to have decent chances
to work well with the financed-via-advertising model. This are
Develop an application with a large hypothetical user base
In theory you can do what you want, given that there is an
hypothetical user base big enough to get at least 100 unique
visitors every day. What I mean is that if you plan to write
a new macro system for the Scheme programming language, for
good that it can be, you will hardly reach this goal,
while with a simple PHP application like a blog engine, a wiki,
or a web forum that works well you are likely to reach the
goal with not too much efforts. This shows that to support your
development via advertising is not like to have fully freedom
on what application do develop, you need an user base,
but it's a reasonable compromise.
Select topics where advertising is working
Remember that the number of visitors is just one of many factors
that will influence your earning. Another very important factor
is the topic of your application. It can be everything but
it must have a good number of people that want to advertise
about it, so you will earn more every click. I don't what to
touch the details here, but basically advertisements shown
with the AdSense program are the one inserted (and paied)
by people using the AdWords
program of Google. This program works in a way that
advertisers wanting to advertise about topics where many others want
to advertise, have to pay more for every click (or incoming visit).
The result is that if you select an hot topic for your application,
advertisements that are displayed in your site will earn more for every
click received (Google will share some amount of the earning with you).
You may wonder how it is possible to check if a topic is
hot. Just try a search with google using different keywords
related to your topic, and check how many ADs are displayed
in the Sponsored Links column on the right. If you
see few advertisements chances are that this is not a good
topic to pick. A better solution may be to directly go
in to the Overtune Bid Check Tool, enter
your keywords and check the Bid (Bid means the highest price an
advertiser will pay at any given time for a click).
Sometimes you just want to develop some kind of application
that does not play well with advertisement, and of course you
are free to do it, but just to see how extreme things can be,
recently I wrote a Tcl Interpreter
that will hardly earn even one dollar in 30 days so I just
didn't added Adsense in the site at all. This is from
the point of view of the source code length and complexity the
biggest of my free software projects, and still it is not good to
earn a single dollar, just to show how efforts alone are
not enough to make a project successful from the point of view
of the financed-via-advertising model. You need to select the right
You may start to think that this latest advice limits even more the
field of what kind of application you can develop using this
financing model. Actually most applications with a good user base
are likely to be in a field where there are closed source
implementations of the same idea, that is, companies interested
in advertise about this topic. This means that if your application
has many users it's likely that advertising will also work.
Make your application special
Even if you pick a field where there are already a good number
of free software applications, you can still get decent results.
What you need is to create the application so that's not just a
bad copy of something already working, it must be somewhat
different in a way that a percentage of users may like it enough
to switch to your application instead to use the old one.
For example one of my latest free software projects is
a Web Log Analyzer.
I wrote it for desperation in order to check the hping.org site statistics,
but turned out to be a quite sucessful application itself, I
guess the reason is that's very different in some aspect:
it is very easy to use at the point that there isn't a configuration
file, and focuses more on useful stats specifically about the
Google search engine instead of eyecandy.
You can try this approach in most applications. Today there are
many free software applications that are working well, but with
a so insane user interface, configuration file, compilation stage,
or other aspects of the easy-to-use factor that you may
get some market share point just making it bloat-free and simple to use.
How to place ADs
I think the image on the left explains very well how you should
place ADs on your site as your first try. In this map
the white colored spots are the one with very low CTR
(Click-through ratio, that's the percentage of visitors clicking
on the ADs). Yellow, Orange and Red are respectively better.
As you can see the best place to put ADs is just above the
primary content of your page. In some way there is a tention
between discretion and results, because the less disturbing places
where to put ADs are low CTR spots. Because this makes a big
difference I suggest to place ADs where they work very well.
Free software users are smart, they are usually much more
skilled than the average internet surfer and they perfectly know
what is an ADs and what is not. If you make the ADs more visible
you will not get the effect that users will click them for error.
If you put your ADs in a not so visible place what may happen
is that most users will not click because it's too hard to notice
an interesting AD.
Another thing to consider is that you can place up to three
AD units in a single page, and you can select from a number
of different formats like you can see in this
so it is possible to distribute little ADs units in different
zones of the page in order to be both discrete and visible.
The best thing to do is to try to reach a balance between
user experience and CTR.
An important point about ADs placement is that the above image
is just a general idea about how things are working in the big
picture of all the sites running the AdSense program. Every
site is different, so you should start placing your ADs following
this image, and experiment from time to time changing position
to see what result you get.
You can select text, background and link colors for every single AD
unit. Usually what works best is to use the same background of the
rest of your site, and text and links as similar as possible with
the rest of your site. Note that there is a visible text "ADs by Google"
near to every AD unit, so this is not a trick to deceive your
visitors, it's just to fight what is called Ads blindness.
Basically people that spend many time around the web start
to automatically filter ADs that are boxed into a strong
border: they end skipping everything that looks like an AD. Using
the same background and text color of the rest of your site you
avoid an early skipping of ADs. Just to make it more clear, this
is a not so smart color combination:
While this is a better one (for this web page at least):
Getting ADs that match your site content
There are two main type of visitors in a free software web site.
The first type is composed of visitors reaching the site
typing directly the url of the project in the browser bar, or via freshmeat,
or some other kind of link. They now before to visit the site
that it is about a software project about a given topic.
The second type of visitors follow links from search engines,
most of them are searching information or services about
the topic of your site, but not everybody need some software.
This second type of visitors are very likely to click on
an ADs if it well matches your site content, because
this is a way to continue to search. Another thing to take
in mind is that this two different kind of visitors in the
average are different. The first contains people with better
computer skills of the second, that more likely uses Firefox
or even Linux.
A number of different reports like this
show that Firefox users click four time less on ADs
compared to Internet Explorer users. This means that in order
to maximize your earning you must take care that your site
is a good way for users coming from search engines to reach
more information by clicking on the ADs. The only way to do
it is to ensure that your ADs are matching your site content.
Note that this also works well with the first type of users,
the more technically skilled ones: they are more likely to
find interesting ADs if there is a good match between the
site content and the ADs. How to help Google's auto matching
After your site is online you need to relax some week, Google
needs to crawl your site well (intially you may see just
Public Services ADs). With the time ADs will get better,
as Google is able to tune the ADs shown based on their
CTR. After things stabilize, if you are not happy there is
something else you can do.
Use section targeting
Recently Google added the ability to use a specially formatted
HTML comment in order to give hits to the AdSense crawler about
what section is releavent content in your page, and what
instead just headers and in general less on topic stuff.
For example it could happen that a Wiki site about
a Python extension shows ADs about professinal wiki systems
and not about Python or Programming, because the header and the footer
contain things like "PyFooBar Wiki system", or
text like "You can edit every page of this site bacause it is a Wiki".
Section targeting could be able to fix the problem.
To use it put the relevant text
of your pages between comments like
<!-- google_ad_section_start -->
<!-- google_ad_section_end -->
You can add how many sections you like. This is a nice feature
but google may ignore it at all, also I suggest that you
try the vanilla way (no section targeting at all) to start
and switch to it only if the ADs are not matching very well
the site content.
Use competitive ADs filtering
Sometimes Google starts to show some ADs in your site that
you find just not interesting for your users even if it
is matching the site content. If this happens you can instruct
Google to never show this ADs in your pages using the
competitive ADs filtering feature in the AdSense administration
panel. As you can guess from the name this feature is mainly
conceived to help filtering of ADs about competitive products.
As free software developer you instead want that users
will explore closed source alternatives using ADs on your
site, because you are not loosing a paying customer, but
instead earn more.
Use this feature with care as you may end
with fewer possible ADs to display in your site that
may turn in a lower CTR (or even in Public Service ADs
shown, the non paying ones that Google will use when
there is nothing of better to show).
How to increase the number of visitors
As already stated, being fixed the rest of the variables,
your earning will be proportional to the number of visitors
reaching the site of your free software project. This means
that if you can get more visitors, you can earn more.
What you want is not random visitors, but visitors interested
on your project or at least on the software category or
topic of your project: this are good visitors in general,
but also are better from the point of view of advertising.
To get more visitors is not simple, but not so hard following
Don't create a poor site, but a content rich one
I saw a lot of free software projects sites where there is
something like: This is my fooBar project that can do this,
click here to download. There is only one goal for an
user to reach a web site like this: to download the program.
Also to have so little text in a web page makes AdSense
wonder what's the topic of your site so non matching
advertisements are more likely to be displayed.
Another problem with sites poor of content is that it is less
likely to get visitors from search engines, and remember
that this kind of visitors are likely to be interested (and to click)
in your advertisements since they are searching for something.
Write quality documentation and put it online
One of the usual complain about free software is that sometimes
documentation is poor. Well if you plan to finance your free
software project using advertisement you have a very good
reason to write good quality documentation and put it online.
You may add just the reference man page in the project
tarball, and put all the rest of the documentation like HOWTOs,
tips, comparisons with other products, on-line under a
non free software license (that's, this information can only
be read in your site). If you don't like to do so, but you
want to ship the full documentation with your project under
a free software license, it is still a good idea to put
online the documentation as it helps a lot to get visitors
via search engines, and in general is a good service for the
user that will be able to explore the features of the program
without to donwload anything (and also will have the good
effect of a longer permanence on your web site that will
make the probability of and AD clicked bigger).
While many tech people on internet are able to write and read
english, and often perform their searches directly in english,
there is still a very big percentage of people not speaking
english, or at least not being comfortable enough with
english to search information in their mother language.
To translate your site in different languages can be
a win, expecially if you include French, German, Japanese
and if possible Italian and Spanish.
Run an on-line forum
This is something free software projects should have anyway
regardless of advertising. It is natural that not everything
the user need is included in the documentation, and a public
forum allows users to exchange comments and suggestions.
Of course don't think that you can run the forum without
to care about what users are posting: most of the times
you need to reply, so there is some work involved, but the
result can be nice. Just make sure that the forum program
you are using plays good with google and can be customized
enough to include AdSense advertisements.
Many projects are already running an help mailing list,
it's just a matter of selecting a different media (the web
instead of the email).
Another idea can be to run a Wiki about your project, or
directly build the main site using a Wiki. For big projects
a Wiki sometimes become a wonderful resource with
a big number of pages, and as you can guess if this happens your
AdSense earning will grow a lot. One of the best free
software projects Wikis I ever seen is
The Tcler's Wiki.
Note that AdSense experts and Google itself noted that
on-line forums tend to have very low CTR compared to other
type of sites. Google published a map to drive ADs placements
specifically for forums that you can see on the left.
Don't wait to add a lot of new features to your project before
to release the next version. This is not good for users that
need to wait a lot of time before to be able to use the new
features, and it is bad for you that can't get feedbacks
about the new features and their stability incrementally.
This works well for our advertising goals too for many reasons:
users know it is likely to find something of new in your
project's site so they visit your pages more frequently.
You can post on Freshmeat
every new release, so you get more site visitors, and
(more important) new long term users for your project.
Post your project on digg once it reaches a good maturity level
Another way to advertise your program is to post it on
Digg once a good usability
level is reached. If you got digged you will get a lot
of visitors, and a percentage of this will become new users
and maybe even contributors.
Use your other projects as a way to advertise your new project
If you already run some free software project, link to your new
project from it to make users aware you are developing something
of new. If users trust your ability as programmer they will
try the new application. Also this helps you to get indexed
better in search engines.
Packages VS web sites
You may wonder what's the effect of being included in some major
Linux distribution like Debian
or as part of the FreeBSD ports.
The result is likely to be more users of your free software project,
but you may wonder if this can lower the number of visitors of
your web site. After all what is needed to install your application
is just apt-get install fooBar.
Fortunately this is likely to don't affect at all the number
of visitors in a bad way (but on the contrary, it's a good
thing for your project). Actually users installing your
application from a package can either don't know about it,
so you have a chance to get a new user, or already know about
it, and in the latter case being the package not available what
he will do is just to reach your site to download the tar.gz
of your program (and it is very unlikely that somebody with
this goal will click on an AD). Being inserted in a software
distribution makes your program more known and simpler to
install, so it's just a good idea.
What you can do as user
If you are not a software developer, but just a free software
user please let me tell this: you are an hero if you
reached this part of the article :). But here there is some
information for you, and what you can do if you like the idea
of advertisements as a way to finance free software.
Help your favourite free software projects to get indexed
Link your favourite projects sites from your site, blog, whatever. This way
the project will get more visits both directly (following your link)
and indirectly because search engines will better rank the site.
The result is that the project will earn more money that are more
hours developers will have available to spend in order to improve the project.
DO NOT click on ADs you are not interested just to help
What you should NOT DO is to click on the ADs if you are not
really interested but just to help the project: this may
have the inverse effect.
You alone can't change a lot the earning of the project, instead
advertisers may notice that there are a lot of clicks from
this site with a low conversion (that is every N incoming
visits a too little percentage of visitors purchased something),
and try to advertise in a different
site (note that with AdWords, the program where advertisers setup
ADs that will be shown in sites partecipating in the AdSense program,
it is possible to select the site where the ADs will appear).
It is also very important to take the conversion at a good level
to make sure this form of advertising works, this will encourage
advertisers to put money on it.
It's always told to me that what advertising needs is quality content.
Not spam sites, but very informative pages where users can
find useful information and continue to search for more
information (or vendors related to the topic of the page) clicking into ADs.
A good free software project is a program users can get free of charge,
with a free license (so with many rights included) and the whole source
code. Often this software is of good quality and very useful.
I think this is quality content, and actually that clicks originating from
free software projects sites are well performing for advertisers.
Free software users are in the average different, they tend to click more when
they are interested in something, and less at random.
What I may like to see in the future is an affiliate program
for free software developers, where it is possible to link AD units with a given
software category, so that advertisers can have the ability to
show ADs directly on free software sites about specific topics.
Google's auto-matching technology works well enough
for the average site, but free software sites can be categorized
in a much more specific way, because a web page can contain a
very large number of possible things, while a free software project
site is about some kind of software that's simple to define in a precise way.
What I mean is that google's current technology may show ADs
about CVS clients for windows in the download page of a security related
free software project: this makes very little sense. A more specific
affiliate program for what can be a large enough fraction of
interesting sites on the whole internet may solve this kind of problems
and advantage both free software developers and advertisers.
Chitika - a new alternative to Google Adsense
Good news for people writing free software that is directly
related to some kind of product. Chitika, a new online advertising
company, entered the market with an interesting product called
eMiniMalls. Basically it's a banner about a product
very similar to the banners of amazon associates, where there
is a photo of the product and the best price. What's new is that
Chitika will pay you per click, not just when the user
purchase the final product, and that's a strong difference.
For a demo of the service or to apply Click Here and you will use me as referral.
For people too busy to check the demo this is a static image
of one of the banners they provide:
Fortunately tabs in the banner are not bogus, they really work
program in few sites, my impression is that while the CTR is not as
high as with Adsense, the earning-per-click is better. It's really
worth to try on free software based products like gphoto.
If you are a free software developer, like this financing model
and plan to use it with your applications, you could add the following
button to your web site linking to this article.
About the author
I'm Salvatore Sanfilippo
(aka antirez), a freelance software developer based on Sicily, Italy.
I'm the author of Hping,
The Jim Interpreter,
and few other free software projects. If you want to contact
me just write an email to <antirez (at) gmail (dot) com>.
Apply with Adsense or Chitika eMiniMalls